Culture refers to that part of the total repertoire of human action which is socially as opposed to genetically transmitted. In social science, culture is all that in human society which is socially rather than biologically transmitted. Culture is a general term for the symbolic and learned aspects of human society. Social anthropological ideas of culture are based to a great extent on the definition in which it is referred to as “a learned complex of knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, and custom”. This definition implies that culture and civilization are same. Modern ideas of culture arose through the work of field anthropologists such as Franz Boas. Subsequently, it was argued the concept of culture can provide ways of explaining and understanding human behavior, belief systems, values and ideologies. In the present-day cultural anthropology, analysis of culture may proceed at three levels: first, learned patterns of behavior; second, aspects of culture that act below conscious levels; and, third, patterns of thought and perception which are also culturally determined. In this contest, culture is a tern mostly used as adaptive rather than material.
Cite this article:
Khursheed Ahmad Bhat. Cultural Conditions of Kashmir during 20th Century. Int. J. Ad. Social Sciences. 2017; 5(1): 5-10. doi: 10.5958/2454-2679.2017.00002.0